Hamza El Din – Music of Nubia (1964)

hamza

Hamza El Din
“Music of Nubia”
1964 Vanguard Records (VMD164)

1. Fegir Nedan :: Call To Worship
2. Desse Barama :: Peace
3. Aiga Denos Ailanga :: Give Back My Heart
4. Hoi to Irkil Fagiu :: The Message Bearer
5. Kuto Fa Pattaroni :: Children’s Songs
6. Shahadag Og :: Believe!
7. Nabra :: Raw Gold
8. Nubala :: Nubiana

Hamze El Din – vocal and Oud.
Featuring Ahmed Abdul Malik on upright bass (track 4) and Sandy Bull on Percussion (track 8).

Long before the phrase “World Music” reread its neocolonial ugly head, there were a few record labels like Vanguard that were exposing the ears of the anglophone world to soundscapes beyond their borders. An early classic in this genre is this debut album by oud player Hamza El Din after his historic performances at the Newport Folk Festival. I had the pleasure of playing in a band with a guy who played oud.. Actually he played bass guitar for us, a fact which he found ironic, and if we’d had any sense we would have found a way to incorporate that ethereal instrument into our work. I have also had the pleasure of mixing and recording the instrument a few times (I can’t actually play a decent note on its fretless-lute neck..), and it is one of a handful of instruments that could play “happy birthday” and bring a tear to my eye and fill my heart with spiritual longing. Hamza El Din is quite possibly single-handedly responsible for introducing this sound to the twentieth-century Occident. But enough babble from me, it’s a Friday and I am taking the rest of the day off. Instead I will let Vanguard has supply you with their typically thoughtful and informative original liner notes for this one, below:

hamza

Hamza El Din – Music of Nubia (1964) in 320 kbs em pee tree

Hamza El Din – Music of Nubia (1964) in FLAC LOSSLESS AUDIO

NOTE: It came to my attention that a scan of the tray inlay was left out of the original RAR files. You can find it HERE

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Hallelujah Chicken Run Band – Take One 1974-79 (2006) [Analog Africa No.2]

analog africa

analog africa

Hallelujah Chicken Run Band

Take One (1974-79)
Analog Africa No.2
2006, Alula Records (ALU 2002)

What a thing of beauty this disc is! Africa during the 1960s witnessed a host of incredible bands that came to prominence playing their music in the dim afterthoughts of colonialism, the sweat and smoke-filled corners of leisure found in places like rail stations, hotels, and bars funded by the capital of heavy industry. The latter was the case for the Hallelujah Chicken Run Band, which formed under the direct incentive of a Zimbabwe copper mine looking for a good band to keep its workers satiated and spending their money. This compilation from the Analog Africa label presents their story in words and music from inception to collapse, with an informative and entertaining essay by Samy Ben Redjeb, amazing photos and graphic layout, and a good mastering job. Redjeb details how the band had been assembled by trumpet player Daram Karanga who convinced a handful of the area’s best musicians to relocate out into the middle of nowhere for this gig. They had been peppering their sets with Afro-rock and funk of the type popular in Nigeria and Ghana at the time, and the mine workers just weren’t going for it. Noticing that people went bat-shit crazy when they played traditional music from Zimbabwe, they pretty much invented their own thing, crafting a sound that was, as they say, `way ahead of its time.` The band saw a lot of different musicians go through their ranks in a relatively short span of time. The most famous of them is singer and drummer Thomas Mapfumo, but all of the players are overflowing with talent here.

Every song on here is a gem. Jumping out at you with the propulsive kick drum beats, the uptempo cuts foreshadow much of the African music to emerge over the next twenty years. Of particular importance is the guitar work of Joshua Hlornayi, who played angular, staccato melodies broken up by clean-toned chord voicings – this is miles away from the way guitar was being used by most bands in West Africa at the time. The combination of frenetic guitar, slower and more sparse bass guitar lines, and drums heavy on the kick drum and stick work on the snare, all contribute to a sound that I can only manage to describe as “circular.” This rhythmic frenzy is accomplished without the help of the variety of percussion usually associated with African music, restricting themselves to a simple drum kit and guitars. Above the frenzy soars the brass, with wonderful work from Daram Karanga and saxophonist Robson Boore in beautiful arrangements. The infectiously melodic vocals are consistently impressive on this collection also (although it is a shame that I can’t understand a word of it). Take a song like “Murembo” — it is wickedly complicated, with gorgeous vocal harmony intro starting things off, when then changes its structure just as an instrumental arrangement crawls out from under it and begins playing a trance-inducing lope through the rest of the tune. The liner notes by Redjeb (for which he also conducted a few interviews) can be somewhat confusing when it comes to names and recording details, but a look at the detailed discography and personnel list on the last pages of the booklet show us just what kind of raw material he had to work with when trying to summarize the HCR band. This is a record that I liked immediately on first listen, and began to love soon afterward, and I never seem to get tired of the material. If you can track this down, pick up a copy and support Analog Africa for the wonderful work they do.

analog africa

Hallelujah Chicken Run Band – Take One 1974-79 (2006) in 320kbs em pee twee

Hallelujah Chicken Run Band – Take One 1974-79 (2006) in FLAC LOSSLESS AUDIO

PASSWORD / SENHA IN COMMENTS

Hugh Masekela & The Union of South Africa (1971) (with The Crusaders)

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Hugh Masekela and the Union of South Africa
Originally released on CHISA records (Chisa 808)
This reissued, Motown / MoJazz (31453-0329-2) from 1994

01 – Goin’ Back to New Orleans (5:07) (Hugh Masekela)
02 – Ade (3:47) (Caiphus Semenya)
03 – To Get Ourselves Together (2:52) (Hugh Masekela)
04 – Johannesburg Hi-Lite Jive (3:57) (Eric Songxaka-Jonas Gwangwa)
05 – Mamani (5:23) (Caiphus Semenya)
06 – Shebeen (4:02) (Jonas Gwangwa)
07 – Dyambo (3:49) (Caiphus Semenya)
08 – Caution! (5:41) (Caiphus Semenya)
09 – Hush (Somebody’s Calling My Name) (3:34) (Joe W. May)

In my morning ritual of working on this blog over some coffee, I decided that the way I was going to show my support for Brazil in today’s World Cup match would be by posting this album of anti-Dutch liberation music from Hugh Masekela & The Union of South Africa. Okay okay, calling it revolutionary and anti-colonial might be a bit much, but it’s a great record and should make for a cathartic listening experience no matter how things turn out today.

It was hard to decide what songs to include on this little sample below, since they really are all excellent. I decided on one vocal number and one instrumental, because in a way the album almost sounds like it can’t decide which way to go in that respect. The instrumental numbers sound a whole hell of a lot like the early Crusaders material (unsurprisingly.. see below), while the vocal numbers are something else. Although described by some as an “Afro-rock” album, these tracks have more in common with the pop sensibilities that made Masekela an international superstar with the song “Grazin’ in the Grass.” Tightly arranged harmonies that draw as much or more from United States gospel, soul, and blues musics than from ‘traditional’ vocal styles of the Motherland. And there is absolutely no problem with that – the result is a beautiful album. Except for the tunes “Ade”, with its boogie funk and fuzzy guitar, and “Dyambo” (another funky number… can anyone out there tell me if the lyrics to this are in Swazi or Zulu, or any of the other ELEVEN “official languages” of South Africa???), there is little to be called “rock” here, unless its to be understood in the sense that The Crusaders are sometimes called “jazz rock”.

So, as I was saying… Two songs here to give you a taste – the vocal number “To Get Ourselves Together,” souljazz with a slow-funk backbeat (hmm, well the ‘turnaround’ between verses here is kind of rock-like in a delicious way); followed by “Johannesburg Hi-Lite Jive” which is kind of a High Life song as played by The Crusaders. If this doesn’t whet your appetite for more, then I simply don’t know what to say and you probably close this page on your browser and go back to listening to whatever floats your musical boat.

Although not credited anywhere on this Chisa / Motown reissue, this record (recorded entirely in Hollywood, California) relies heavily on members of the mighty CRUSADERS as the backing band, with the album jacket listing only the horn players Masekela, Jonas Gwangwa (trombone) and Caiphus Semenya (alto sax) as comprising “The Union.” I am not sure if The Crusaders members on these sessions (Joe Sample, Wayne Henderson, Wilton Fedder, Stix Hooper) were listed on the original Chisa vinyl, but if not I am sure there must have been good reasons – they were willing collaborators and had recorded for the label (even changing their name at Masekela’s suggestion).

Recording in a cluster of sessions spanning April 5 – 9, 1971, exactly who played on what is rather confusing. Thanks to Doug Payne’s excellent website, we know the following details (note that a bunch of these tracks did not appear on the original album presented here):

HUGH MASEKELA & THE UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA
Hugh Masekela
Hollywood, California: April 5, 1971
Hugh Masekela (tp, vcl); Jonas (Mosa) Gwangwa (tb, vcl); Wayne Henderson (tb); Wilton Felder (ts); Joe Sample (key); Arthur Adams, Wayne West (g); prob. Stix Hooper (d); Caiphus (Caution) Semenya? (vcl).
overdubbed in Hollywood, California: April 9, 1971
Hugh Masekela; King Errison (perc).

a. Ade (Caiphus Semenya) – 3:47
b. Dyambo (Weary Day Is Over) (Caiphus Semenya) – 3:49

Hollywood, California: April 5, 1971
Hugh Masekela (tp, vcl); Jonas (Mosa) Gwangwa (tb, vcl); Wayne Henderson (tb); Wilton Felder (ts); Joe Sample (key); Arthur Adams, Wayne West (g); prob. Stix Hooper (d); Caiphus (Caution) Semenya? (vcl).

c. Ku Ku Di

Hollywood, California: April 7, 1971
Hugh Masekela (tp, vcl); Jonas (Mosa) Gwangwa (tb, vcl); Wayne Henderson (tb); Wilton Felder (ts); Joe Sample (key); Arthur Adams, Wayne West (g); prob. Stix Hooper (d); Caiphus (Caution) Semenya? (vcl).

d. Mabasa
e. This Stuff Is Killing Me
f. To Get Ourselves Together (Hugh Masekela) – 2:52

Hollywood, California: April 9, 1971
Hugh Masekela (tp, vcl); Jonas (Mosa) Gwangwa (tb, vcl); Wayne Henderson (tb); Wilton Felder (ts); Joe Sample (key); Arthur Adams, Wayne West (g); prob. Stix Hooper (d); Caiphus (Caution) Semenya? (vcl); King Errison (perc).

g. Mamani (Caiphus Semenya) – 5:23

Hollywood, California: April 7, 1971
Hugh Masekela (tp, vcl); Jonas (Mosa) Gwangwa (tb, vcl); Wayne Henderson (tb); Wilton Felder (ts); Joe Sample (key); Arthur Adams, Wayne West (g); prob. Stix Hooper (d); Caiphus (Caution) Semenya? (vcl).

h. Goin Back To New Orleans (Hugh Masekela) – 5:07
i. Railroad
j. Johannesburg Hi-Lite Jive (Eric Songxaka/Jonas Gwangwa) – 2:52
k. Caution! (Caiphus Semenya) – 5:41
l. Shebeen (Jonas Gwangwa) – 4:02

same or similar.

m. Hush (Somebody’s Calling My Name) (Joe W. May) – 3:34

Note: Dudu Pukwana, a member of Masekela’s Union Of South Africa around this time, later authored and performed a song titled “Baloyi” on his 1973 recording IN THE TOWNSHIPS (Caroline 1504, Earthworks 90884-2 [CD]) that bears notable similarities to “Shebeen” above.

Issues: a, b, f, g, h, j, k, l & m on Chisa CS 808 (issued May 1971), Rare Earth (E) SRE-3002, MoJazz 31453-0330-2 [CD] (issued August 1994).
Singles: b (2:35 edit) & l (4:00 edit) also on Chisa C 8014F [45]. l also on Tamla Motown (SA) TMS 373 [45].
Samplers: a also on Hip-O B0007383-02 [CD] titled THE BEST OF HUGH MASEKELA – 20th CENTURY MASTERS – THE MILLENNIUM COLLECTION. a, f, g, h, j & m also on Spectrum (E) 9810227 [CD] titled THE COLLECTION. b also on Tapecar (Br) LPS X0-4 titled SOM ECODINAMIC PART TWO, Motor (Ger) 525 444-1, Motor (Ger) 525 444-2 [CD] titled MOJO CLUB PRESENTS DANCELOOR JAZZ VOLUME 4: LIGHT MY FIRE and Strut (E) STRUTLP007, Strut (E) STRUTCD007 [CD] titled CLUB AFRICA 2. b, g & j also on Verve (Ger) 06007 5328250 [CD] titled HUGH! THE BEST OF HUGH MASEKELA – PRESENTED BY TILL BRÖNNER. b, b (stereo promo version) & l also on Hip-o Select B001157902 [CD] titled THE COMPLETE MOTOWN SINGLES VOLUME 11A: 1971. l also on ? (SA) ? [CD] titled MESH MAPETLA PRESENTS JAZZ IN SOUTH AFRICA VOLUME 1.
Producer: Stewart Levine
Engineer: Lewis Peters

Mulatu Astatke – Mulatu Steps Ahead (2010)

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Mulatu Astatke
“Mulatu Steps Ahead”
Released March 25, 2010
Strut Records (056CD)

1. Radcliffe
2. Green Africa
3. Way To Nice, The
4. Assosa
5. I Faram Gami I Faram
6. Mulatu’s Mood
7. Ethio Blues
8. Boogaloo
9. Motherland

I enjoyed last year’s collaboration between Mulatu Astatke and The Heliocentrics (called, unimaginatively, Inspiration Information Volume 3, a title lifted from Shuggie Otis’ magnum opus and used by Strut for an ongoing series that has also featured collaborations between the likes of Sly & Robbie and Amp Fiddler). But although I like it, it still didn’t exactly set me on fire. It sounded too much like the producers trying to “update” Mulatu, and why he needs “updating” is beyond me. This album witnesses Mulatu working in a creative space that feels more natural for the 60-odd year old composer, arranger, and vibraphonist. It’s his first album under (solely) his own name in over 20 years, and it’s worth the wait. The opening track, Radcliffe (written for a performance at the college), is spacious and languid and immediately lets us know he is not going for the hipster-tinged recreation of Ethiopiques-cum-hip-hop that was the Heliocentrics partnership. There is nothing too terribly revolutionary about this record, in spite of its intimations at exploring new territory, but that is fine by me. The influence of Latin American music is keenly felt at times, as it has always been in Mulatu’s work and in African jazz more generally. I am still digesting this album but I would have to say that the only track that feels weak to me is “Boogaloo” which has the same type of forced contrivance that turns me off from chunks of the Heliocentrics record. Damn, it sounds like I really don’t like that album, which isn’t the case — it is a good album, just not a great one, in my opinion. It remains to be seen what I will think of this one after repeated listenings but thus far I am happily pleased. Below is a review by one of those people who gets paid to write about music, reprinted without permission.
————————————————————-

Implicit in the title Mulatu Steps Ahead is the notion that vibraphonist and composer Mulatu Astatke is progressing, not resting on his laurels. Now in his 60s, he’s riding a wave of affection for music that he made 35 years ago, which was first revived by a volume of the Ethiopiques series (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethiopiques) and then popularized by appearing in the film Broken Flowers. It would be easy for him to coast, but although he does revisit old material and methods on this record, it doesn’t sound like anything else in his discography.

Born in 1943, Astatke left Ethiopia when he was a teen to study in the UK, where he was first smitten by the modern jazz of Joe Harriott and Tubby Hayes. He subsequently lived in the USA, where he played in Latin bands, and during his sojourn abroad Astatke conceived a synthesis of jazz and Ethiopian music. He moved back to his homeland just in time for the brief flowering of Ethiopian pop music documented by Ethiopiques, and during that time he also perfected his own hybrid style, although it never knocked out audiences the way his productions for singers like the late Tlahoun Gessesse (a.k.a. Tilahun Gessesse) did. With its whomping beats and electric guitars and keyboards, Inspiration Information 3, the record he made in 2008 with the Heliocentrics, offered a muscled-up version of the old Ethio-jazz sound for hip-hop-trained ears.

Mulatu Steps Ahead was made mostly with the Either/Orchestra and it emphasizes the jazz side of Astatke’s music. Instead of the sturdy R&B grooves of vintage Ethio-jazz, Astatke and his mostly American ensemble play acoustically accomplished rhythms with a pronounced sense of swing. “Radcliffe,” named for the college where Astatke enjoyed a residency a while back, steps most deliberately, with the forward motion mostly coming from a muted trumpet wreathed in swirls of piano, Gil Evans-like horn charts, and Astatke’s own vibraphone. The next tune, “Green Africa,” unveils a more pan-African side to Astatke’s music. While it does feature traditional Ethiopian stringed instruments, there’s also a West African balafon and a bass line that feels quite Moroccan.

When Astatke looks back, he looks away from Ethiopia as often as not. “The Way To Nice,” which features a few Heliocentrics including the superb trumpeter Byron Wallen, appropriates a John Barry theme to set a cool James Bond vibe. And “I Faram Gami I Faram,” a tune 44 years ago in New York, sets Amharic words to an unabashedly Nuyorican rhythm. Another reclaimed tune, “Mulatu’s Mood,” furthers the Pan-African vibe with a lilting Malian kora, an instrument that has as much to do Ethiopian culture as the Celtic harp has to do with Bulgarian music. And he uses two traditional Ethiopian melodies as frameworks for repeating horn figures that feel more like American minimalism than Ethio-jazz. The individual elements on Mulatu Steps Ahead often feel well aged, but the way Astatke has put them together takes them out of time. Instead they represent the latest progressive step of a singular talent.

By Bill Meyer

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*Note: this is NOT the version with a bunch of annoying voice-overs done over every song, which is a promo version that has been circulating on the interwebs.

 in 320 kbs em pee three

in FLAC LOSSLESS AUDIO format

Fela Anikulapo Kuti and Afrika 70 – Opposite People / Sorrow, Tears & Blood (1977)


I plan to share some African music NOT from Nigeria in the next week or so, but until then a Fela album wouldn’t hurt. There’s nothing rare or arcane about the man’s music at this point of the digital age. Nowadays you can find his work everywhere. But there was a time when — where I was living, at least – Fela’s albums were quite rare. I remember being in high-school and having a cassette tape of his stuff that was a treasured possession, given to me by a bass player for a reggae-funk band I had befriended as a young lad. I played the shit out of that tape until the magnesium oxide was shedding onto your finger tips just handling the thing. For over ten years it was the only Fela I possessed in my music collection, a random 90-minute mixtape of his stuff. These days, there is a band in Rio de Janeiro devoted solely to playing his music, and bands in the US from New York to Ann Arbor that are just shamelessly ripping him off. Always go back to the original, though, and you will see why he was an international iconoclastic heavyweight the likes of which are rarely seen, and can’t be imitated.

Post-colonial marxist rhythm and blues lead off Fela & Afrika 70’s ‘Opposite People’, the title track a fast, frantic afrosoul workout in composite time. Fela has an extended sax solo on this one and doesn’t begin singing until eleven minutes in. A slower beat but an identical structure characterize the class-consciousness metaphor-making of ‘Equalization of Trouser and Pant’. This is a fine enough album but reminds me of a conversation I had with a friend about how you can substitute a handful of these Afrika 70 titles from the early to mid-70s pretty much interchangeably. You have one, you kind of have them all, although I prefer to have them all. An opinion like this is bound to induce flames in the comments section, but I assure you I mean no ill will towards Fela. Unlike Caetano Veloso, who is still a douche.

The real item of interest on this Sony 2-on-1 disc is the album “Sorrow, Tears & Blood”. Released as the first title on Fela’s own Kalakuta Records after being dropped by Decca in the wake of the government’s raid on his compound and confiscation of his master tapes (which he managed to get back, thankfully), it shows Fela and Afrika 70 shifting gears ever so slightly to a more foreboding, loping groove. It’s short EP-length keeps it powerful enough to lodge in your memory. The second side, ‘Colonial Mentality’, is a monster, and something of an anthem toward the continual unfolding process of decolonizing the mind, body, and spirit. Some of Tony Allen’s most innovative playing can be heard in the low-burning, restrained bedrock he sets down, creating a tension that you keep expecting him to release with some more ebullient, open playing but which he never quite does aside from laying on the ride cymbals for a few measures here and there. Groove and lyrical intention in sync here.

Opposite People (1977)
1. Opposite People (16:37)
2. Equalisation of Trouser and Pant (16:43)

Sorrow Tears and Blood (1977)
3. Sorrow Tears and Blood (10:16)
3. Colonial Mentality (13:42)

Contains complete artwork, cue, log, m3u files

Fela & Afrika 70 – Opposite People / Sorrow, Tears & Blood (1977) in 320kbs em pee tree

Fela & Afrika 70 – Opposite People / Sorrow, Tears & Blood (1977) in FLAC LOSSLESS AUDIO
Part One //////////// Part Two

Sorry for having to go back to zshare again for a while, folks, but there’s nothing I can do about it at the moment. There is a proverb in English about beggars and choosers, pays to recall it…

Senha/password in comments

Manu Dibango – Soul Makossa (1972) {African Mix}

Manu Dibango
“Soul Makossa” 1972

This pressing – MusiDisc, France, 331442

1. Soul Makossa
2. Lily
3. Dangwa “Three Points”
4. O Boso
5. New Bell “Hard Pulsation”
6. Nights in Zeralda
7. Hibiscus

This is the original mix of the famous “Soul Makossa” album from Manu Dibango, loaned to me by a dear friend who tells me this was mix used for the African market, with the drums and percussion mixed higher than the version released in Europe during the 1970s. The huge single from this album (released before the LP) launched Dibango’s international career and spawned many cover versions around the world. Although the tray card lists a 1969 copyright, I can’t find any information on the interwebs (which are all-knowing and wise) to back that up, so I am listing it here under its more common release date which was 1972. I could be persuaded otherwise. But the style of production does seem more like early-70s to me — a lot was changing in the studio-world during this time, and 69 seems too early for a lot of the material on this record. The second cut, “Lily” could easily have been produced in ’69, so perhaps some of this record was assembled from tracks recorded at different times. Anyone with detailed information please leave a comment. There have been a number of different pressings on vinyl and CD, some of which have as many as 13 tracks on them, so its all very confusing. Although it lacks specific information on this title, there is a very nice discography of Manu Dibango over at the lovely Soundological Investigations blog.

———————————story of “The Song”——————————————-
“Soul Makossa” is a 1972 single by Cameroonian makossa saxophonist Manu Dibango. It is often cited as one of the first disco records.[2] In 1972 David Mancuso found a copy in a Brooklyn West Indian record store and often played it at his Loft parties.[3] The response was so positive that the few copies of “Soul Makossa” in New York City were quickly bought up.[3] The song was subsequently played heavily by Frankie Crocker, who DJed at WBLS, then New York’s most popular black radio station.[3] Since the original was now unfindable, at least 23 groups quickly released cover versions to capitalize on the demand for the record.[3] Atlantic eventually licensed the song from the French record label Fiesta.[3] Their release of it peaked at #35 on the Billboard chart in 1973; in 1999 Dave Marsh wrote that it was “the only African record by an African” to crack the top 40.[4] At one point there were nine different versions of the song in the Billboard chart.[5] It became “a massive hit” internationally as well.[5]

“Soul Makossa” was originally recorded as a B-side for “Mouvement Ewondo,” a song about Cameroon’s association football team.[5]

It is probably best remembered for the chanted vocal refrain “Mama-ko, mama-sa, ma-ka-ma-ko-ssa”, which was also used in Michael Jackson’s 1982 “Wanna Be Startin’ Somethin'” (albeit in a different key with a not-so-monophonic melody) during the song’s final bridge. It is also sampled in the hip hop song “Face Off” by artist Jay-Z on his album In My Lifetime, Vol. 1 as well as the single “Don’t Stop the Music” by Rihanna. The song is also sampled on the intro to The Carnival, Wyclef Jean’s first solo album. The phrase “ma ma say ah, ma ma coo sah” also appears in the fourth verse of the song “Rhythm (Devoted to the Art of Moving Butts)” by A Tribe Called Quest, and in “Mama Say,” the debut single by the Bloodhound Gang. “Makossa” means “(I) dance” in Duala, a Cameroonian language.[6]
————————————
Credits

* Arranged by Manu Dibango
* Written by Manu Dibango
* Bass by Long Manfred
* Drums by Joby Jobs
* Electric guitar by Manu Rodanet
* Percussion by Freddy Mars
* Piano by Georges Arvanitas, Patrice Galas
* Acoustic guitar by Pierre Zogo
References

1. ^ Manu Dibango discography on Discogs.com
2. ^ The History of Rock Music – The Seventies
3. ^ a b c d e Shapiro, Peter. Turn the Beat Around: the Secret History of Disco. New York: Faber and Faber, Inc., 2005., 35.
4. ^ Marsh, Dave. “The Heart of Rock and Soul: The 1001 Greatest Singles Ever Made”. Da Capo Press, 1999., 548
5. ^ a b c Broughton, Simon; Mark Ellingham (2000). World Music: The Rough Guide. Rough Guides. p. 441.
6. ^ TRANS Nr. 13: George Echu (Yaounde): Multilingualism as a Resource: the Lexical Appropriation of Cameroon Indigenous Languages by English and French
7. ^ Billboard Pop Charts Allmusic.com
8. ^ R&B Billboard. Allmusic.com.

Includes full artwork in 600 dpi as TIF, m3u, log, cue, and a tasty yam dish in honor of Mother Africa.